Welsh castle dating 1219
The town and castle were burnt during a Welsh attack in 1185. 268) A fair (nundine) was recorded in 1188 (PR, 34 Hen II, p. In 118999, John, count of Gloucester confirmed the charter of Earl William of Gloucester (R. Patterson, Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. A fair held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, is recorded on . The first castle at Cardigan was built in the reign of K Hen I. There were a very small number of tax-payers by 12923. The Mortimer family rebuilt the castle in 12734 and founded a small borough by 1297. However, Cefnllys had begun to decline by the mid fourteenth century. Castle first mentioned in 1166 and the town in 1204. Colwyn was a hundred in Radnorshire, in the deanery of Elwel. K Edw I founded the castle and borough, which were virtually completed by 1287. Roman settlement had disappeared by the end of the fourth century. After capture by K Edw I in 1283, the castle was extended. In 1404, the town and castle were burnt by Glyndwr. On , the burgesses and bailiffs of the town of Crickhowell received a murage grant. In the 1080s, the Normans reoccupied a Roman fort and constructed a motte here. On , trading outside the markets of Cardiff was outlawed in the charter of liberties granted by Hugh, lord Despenser (R. Griffiths, The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea, in T. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. (Prescriptive) feria recorded 11212x1147, held by Robert fitz Regis, earl of Gloucester, who granted to Tewkesbury abbey the tithe of the rents and tolls of his fair at Cardiff (R. Patterson ed., Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. In 114783, this grant was confirmed by a charter of Earl William of Gloucester (R. Patterson, Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. A Norman motte was constructed in 1093 a mile west of the present town, at Hen Castell. A motte built two miles north in c.1100 by Ralph Mortimer was abandoned in 1240x46 and a new stone castle constructed at Cefnllys. Site of a Welsh hall and a Cistercian abbey from c.1192. Welsh castle constructed here by 1239, with a ch and possibly an associated settlement. It had hardly grown by 1294 and remained small in 1319. The king had ratified the gifts (CCh R, 12571300, p. A military and administrative centre after the Norman conquest of south Wales.
Mandate to the Justiciar of Chester to make the fair known and henceforth be held. The town trebled in size between 12, with substantial extra-mural development.
The date is assumed to be that of the translation of Edward the Confessor.
Borough almost destroyed by Owain Glyndwr in 1404; it was not fully restored until the early sixteenth century (Soulsby, pp.
Episcopal see, to which the first Norman bp was appointed in 1092. Site may have seen more development during the twelfth century, prompted by the building of a new cathedral ch. Charter confirmed by K Ric II on (CPR, 137781, p. (Letter Patent) Trillo (15 Jun); gr , by Edw, prince of Wales to Matthew, bp of Bangor. Market formerly held at Llanfaes, Wales (q.v.) on Sat was to be moved here. Market place was triangular and situated next to the ch of St Mary, in the centre of the medieval town. The fair was mentioned in a charter of Edward, duke of Buckingham, earl of Hereford, Stafford, Northampton and lord of Brecon on . However, the main settlement appears to have developed after the castle was taken by the Welsh. Lobel states that there were four annual fairs after 1352, but provides no further details (M. Lobel, Historic Towns: maps and plans of towns and cities in the British Isles: with historical commentaries from earliest times to 1800 (London, 1969), p. Welsh attacks in the late thirteenth century and in 1316 prevented the growth of the town (Soulsby, pp. In 14289, the income from the markets and fairs at Caerphilly was farmed for 4 each year. Before his death in 1314, Earl Gilbert de Clare granted the townsfolk of Caerphilly freedom to buy and sell in the market (R. Griffiths, The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea, in T. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. Soulsby states that the market continued until the mid twentieth century (Soulsby, p. In 1326, the town was made a staple port licensed to deal in wool, pelts, leather, lead and tin.
Probably grew up around the monastery of St Deiniol, founded in the sixth century, which became the main ecclesiastical centre in North Wales. Burnt by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in 1231 and attacked by Owain Glyndwr in 1404. However, it is assumed that the fair was also held on the feast day itself. He may also have granted borough status to Caernarfon. This was destroyed by the Welsh in 1270 and reconstructed the following year, when a town was laid out. The weekly market had been abandoned by Lelands time (15326) (Soulsby, pp. After the Edwardian conquest, it became the focus for royal government in south Wales. Rhys, Ministers Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, p.